Nicola Porpora

 

Nicola (Antonio) Porpora

Born Naples 17th August, 1686
Died Naples 3rd March, 1768

A celebrated composer and singing teacher, Porpora's ability to set the Italian language to music was internationally acknowledged during his lifetime. 

"…Porpora's Cantatas particularly the Recitatives, are still regarded in Italy as models of perfection for narrative Music… The Cantatas of Nicolo (sic) Porpora have been always much esteemed, on account of the excellence of their Recitatives, and the good taste and truly vocal style of the airs…" 1

He numbered among his students Metastasio, Farinelli, Caffarelli, Antonio Uberti (known as "Porporino"), Regina Mingotti and the composer Franz Joseph Haydn.
In a career that spanned almost seventy years Porpora worked mainly in Naples, Rome, Venice, London, Dresden and Vienna. He was a maestro at three of the Conservatorii in Naples, maestro di coro at the three main Venetian Ospedale, formed an opera company to rival Handel in London, became Ober-Kapellmeister to the Electoress of Saxony and was internationally celebrated. His output was large, mostly vocal music including more than 40 operas, 12 serenatas, 4 pasticcios, 14 sacred operas or oratorios, around 135 secular cantatas, 40 sacred choral works, 7 masses, 9 solo motets, 13 Marian antiphons as well as various lamentations and duets. His instrumental output was small, most notably a G major cello concerto, F major cello sonata and his opus 2 Sinfonie da camera (London 1736). Despite his success and international fame during his lifetime, Porpora's life ended in poverty.

Porpora was born on the 17th of August in Naples, the son of Carlo and Caterina Porpora. Porpora's father was a Neapolitan bookseller. He was enrolled in the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesu Cristo2 in September of 1696 where it is assumed that his first composition teacher was Greco. By 1699 he was likely to have been earning his keep as a student teacher as his tuition fees were waived from this time.

In 1708 he received his first commission, for an opera L'Aggrippina, which was a success, however it was to be some time before he received another opportunity to write an opera. In fact it wasn't until 1711 that his opera Flavio Anicio Olibrio was performed during Carnival. The libretto states that he was appointed at this time as the maestro di capella to Prince Phillip of Hesse-Darmstadt, the General of the Austrian army in Naples.

In 1713 Porpora is described in the libretto to his Basilio re d'Oriente as maestro di capella to the Portuguese Ambassador to Rome, in 1715 he is appointed maestro at the Conservatorio di S Onofrio3 and in 1716 receives an honorary title from Prince Phillip who was by now the Imperial Governor of Mantua. In 1717 tragedy strikes and Porpora's father and elder brother die. His responsibilities immediately grow and he begins his work as music teacher in earnest, both at the Conservatorio and privately, in order to support the remaining members of his family.

In Naples at this time the operatic scene was 'towered over' by the Sicilian composer Alessandro Scarlatti 4 who had been working there since the beginning of the century. In an atmosphere dominated by cliques and the Roman Accademia Arcadiana it was difficult for Porpora to develop an audience, however with Scarlatti's departure in 1719 the chances for opera production grew and by the end of year Porpora's Faramondo premiered for the Empress Elisabeth's name day. He composed a further opera for Elisabeth's birthday Angelica in 1720, and in 1721 Gli orti esperidi to libretti by the young Pietro Metastasio. Farinelli, then aged 16, made his debut in the latter.

Porpora's fame grew during this time as he was becoming known in Rome as an opera composer. His Eumene is premiered at the Roman Teatro Alibert and he was invited back to the Alibert, with Farinelli, for the following two years. Porpora was by now so confident of his success as a composer that he resigned from the Conservatorio in 1722.

He toured Germany and Austria in 1724 where only one opera, Damiro e Pitia, was performed, the Emperor apparently thought his music was too florid and ornate and he returned to Italy where he was highly productive, composing Didone abbandonata (Metastasio) for Reggio nell'Emilia and in 1725 Ezio and Semiramide riconosciuta (Metastasio) for the Teatro S Giovanni Gristostomo in Venice. Whilst in Venice he was appointed 'maestro del pio Ospedale degli'Incurabili' 5 the fact of which was noted in the libretto to one of his most successful operas Sifaceand it is here that he settled for some time. 

The first of Porpora's two great rivalries developed here with Leonardo Vinci, another Neapolitan, when they both produced operas at the same theatres in Venice and Rome. Vinci, however, died at the end of 1727.

The lack of conflict was not to last very long as, in 1730, whilst Porpora was absent in Rome, Hasse 6 had great operatic success in Venice. The ensuing rivalry was to continue for many years. Musical highlights of this period included the operas Tamerlano, Poro, Annibale, Germanico in Germania and Issipile, the Cantata: da recitarsi nel Palazzo Apostolico la notte del SS Nataleand the oratorio Sanctus Petrus Urseolus and his Mass in A major.

London beckoned in 1733 with an invitation from the 'Opera of the Nobility' to take on Handel at the King's Theatre. The first of Porpora's operas to be performed at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre was Adrianna in Naxo 7 which was a great success and used many of Handel's former singers including Senesino, Montagnana and Cuzzoni (who only arrived in Spring 1734). During his 3 London years Porpora completed 4 more operas, Ferdinando, Temistofle, Meride,and Arianna, an oratorio David e Bersabea and a serenata La festa d'Imeneo. He also published his opus 1 cantatas, dedicated to the Prince of Wales, and his Sinfonie da camera opus 2.

Despite having an 'all-star cast', which included Farinelli who joined in 1734, the 'Opera of the Nobility' under Porpora did not establish a clear superiority over Handel's company and he left England for Venice in 1736, shortly before the collapse of both his and Handel's opera companies. Curiously, Porpora seems to have been regarded as of secondary importance to Senesino by the 'Opera of the Nobility'. Lincoln's Inn Fields opera house was called Senesino's house or The Prince of Wales' house, never Porpora's.

Upon his return to Venice he was once again appointed maestro at the Incurabili in Hasse's absence and the next two years were spent teaching and working on the operas Lucio Papirio for Carnival 1737, and Rosbale for performance in the Teatro S Giovanni Grisostomo as well as a commission for a Roman opera Carlo il calvo performed in the Spring of 1738 in the Teatro Alibert. Shortly afterwards he returned to Naples to fulfil a commission to write a work for the King's birthday, to be performed in the Teatro S Carlo, the result of which was a second version of La Semiramide riconosciuta, performed in January 1739. His return to Naples prompted the authorities at the Conservatorio di S Maria di Loreto 8 to appoint him maestro di capella and he received commissions for operas from both the Carlo and comic theatres. Il barone di Zampano, Il trionfo di Camilla, Tiridate, Il trionfo del valore were the results. 

These were almost the last operas Porpora was to write for the Italian theatres, finally stopping altogether with the production of Statira at the Teatro S Giovanni Grisostomo during Carnival 1742, after he had moved to Venice as maestro do coro at the Ospedale della Pietà.

However, later that year he took leave to go to London for premiere of his Temistocle at the Kings Theatre in the Haymarket (22 Feb 1743). Upon his return he began giving singing lessons atOspedaletto where he was appointed maestro del coro in 1744, a particularly prolific year for motets and other liturgical works. At the Ospedaletto he had the advantage of extremely gifted students and his writing at the time clearly demonstrates this. 9 

In addition to and possibly in order to supplement his work at the Ospedaletto Porpora applied for the position of maestro di capella at the Neapolitan court. He submitted all the required materials but was unable to attend the court in Naples to complete application as his position in Venice wouldn't allow his absence. As a result he was not appointed.

Instead Porpora became singing teacher to the Electoral Princess of Saxony, Maria Antonia Walpurgis in Dresden in 1747, once again moving to follow the available work. However, as in Venice, he met his rival Hasse at the court in Saxony and the rivalry was further fired by the presence of the great soprano Faustina Bordoni 10 (Hasse's wife!). Porpora had taken as protégée the young soprano Regina Mingotti 11 and conflict arose between the two singers. However, despite the difficulties, Porpora was appointed Kapellmeister 'Until further notice' in 1748 (Hasse was Ober-Kapellmeister) before receiving his pension in 1752 whereupon he left Dresden for Vienna.

In Vienna he renewed his acquaintance with Metastasio and was possibly going to set libretto of Metastasio's new L'Isola disabitata but was prevented by illness from doing so. He gave singing lessons to many, including Metastasio's protégéé Marianne von Martinez, and the composer Joseph Haydn became valet, pupil and accompanist for singing lessons. Haydn in fact claims to have learnt '…the true fundamentals of composition…' from Porpora.

In 1759 Porpora's Dresden pension was stopped due to the invasion of Saxony during the Seven Years War and it was at this time that Metastasio wrote to Farinelli, who was at the court of the King of Spain, to urge assistance for Porpora. He was appointed as 'another maestro di capella' at the Naples Conservatorio di S Maria di Loreto where he had been employed some 20 years before and he accepted a commission for the Teatro S Carlo. For this he reworked his earlier Il trionfo di Camilla for the Carnival but this time it was a failure. In 1760 he was also appointed to a position at the Conservatorio di S Onofrio, but by September of 1761 he had resigned from both appointments. He spent his final years in Naples, dying in poverty. Following his death, the musicians of Naples performed gratis at his church of Ecce Homo in Naples where he was buried on March 3rd, 1768.

1.Anon. From the fly leaf of British Library Manuscript Add 29484.

2.Also the school attended by Alessandro Scarlatti, Domenico Scarlatti, Francesco Durante, Gian Battista Pergolesi, and Nicolò Jommelli

3.S Onofrio was established in the early 1600s and by the end of the century was a major centre for musical education in that area of Italy (see above for fellow students). It's principal function was to train the new 'evirati' or castrated singers made necessary (and popular) by the Papal instruction harking back to Saint Paul 'Mulieres in ecclesis taceant'. Young boys would be sent to the Conservatorio to study voice and one particular instrument as well as musical composition and stage technique. 'Graduating' between the ages of 16 and 20 the young castrati would then move into either a church or secular career. Among the most famous were Farinelli, Caffarelli, Gizziello, Reginella, Matteuccio, Niccolino, Senesino among others.

4.For more information see The Scarlatti Project at http://www.scarlattiproject.com

5.See Denis Arnold's article Orphans and Musicians in Venice - describing the unique system of social support in 18th-century Venice that brought great economic, social and cultural benefits.

6.Johann Adolph Hasse (1699-1783), German composer; pupil of Alessandro Scarlatti. Hasse was court composer at Dresden (1731-63). He wrote masses, oratorios and cantatas, sonatas, and concertos but was known chiefly for over 60 operas, written in a thoroughly Italianized style. They include Artaserse (first version, 1730), which was written for his wife, Faustina Bordoni Hasse, 1700-1781, one of the most celebrated singers of the period.

7.Probably put on in direct competition with Handel's Arianna in Creta, HWV 32 which had its first performance on January 26th, 1734.

8.The oldest of Naples' Conservatorii S Maria di Loreto was founded in 1537 by the Spanish Protonotary Bishop Giovanni di Tapia

9.The solo vocal lines in both the choral and solo works are virtuosic in the extreme whilst still 'conforming' to the Venetian taste for a style emphasizing melody with a simple homophonic accompaniment (usually for strings and continuo). Vocal lines acquired a more lyrical quality whilst at the same time becoming more intricate and highly ornamented. It may be argued that Porpora was one of the composers chiefly responsible for the trend towards this increased embellishment in vocal melody and his skills as a singing teacher and intimate knowledge of the voice no doubt enabled him to exploit the newly developed skills of his performers and students, writing passages both more sustained and more florid than previously attempted.

10.Daughter of the merchant Paolo Bordoni, early study probably at the Conservatorio dei Mendicanti in Venice, first appearance at 16 years old. Contracted to Florence, Venice, Bologna, Munich, Vienna. In 1726 went to London to join Handel's opera, there she was in the enormous scandal fight on open stage with her rival Cuzzoni. 1730 marriage with J A Hasse. 1731 the couple arrive in Dresden then journeys to Rome, Turin, Venice, Naples. 1734 fixed contract in Dresden, nevertheless she undertook frequent journeys to Italy. In 1756 she performed for the last time in Dresden.

11.Regina Mingotti née. Valentini (1728 - 1807) Daughter of a German officer, educated from 1729 in the Ursuline Convent in Graz, remaining until the age of 14 receiving singing lessons from the Mother Abbess. She married in 1747 the Venetian Impresario Pietro Mingotti and sang in his company. She was a pupil of Porpora's and was employed at the Dresden court. Her first appearance in Dresden was as Corinna in Porpora's Filandro.
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Porpora: Lungi dal suo Fileno
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source BL MS Add 14225

Unrequited love in a complex harmonic world! The tale of Eurilla and Fileno told from the female point of view. First aria has operatic Adagio with fermate opening, reminiscent of many opening arias for the 'primo uomo' in Porpora's operas

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Mentre canta l'augelletto
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source BL MS Add 14214

The tale of love, Cupid's darts and a nightingale!
The chromaticism of the recit and second aria are something to be believed, as is the simplicity of the bird song alluded to in the first aria.

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Mentre doglioso un giorno
Forces: alto & continuo

Source BL MS ADD 14215

Virtuosic alto cantata with an outstanding cello part in the second aria. 2 recit and aria format.
Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di contralto
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Porpora: Nel mio sonno almen (Il sogno)
Forces: soprano & continuo

Cantata Op. 1, no. 2

Text by Metastasio in which the lover dreams of his beloved taking away all sadness
Lento - Recit (spectacular) - Andantino

Range: e' - a''

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Ninfe e Pastor che al bel sebeto in riva
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source: BL Add MS 14210

The sad tale of the death of Tirsi and Fille's desire to die as well - after the aria of course! 2 recit and aria format, the last being virtuosic again.
Range: d - g''

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Non hò vita hò viva morte
Forces: soprano & continuo

To be separated from the beloved is a fate worse than death. In ARA format, the first aria a 'pathetic' largo and the last, portraying the sailor on rough seas, a wonderful allegro

Source: Münster Santini HS 3313 (11)
Range: e - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Non sò come resisto
Forces: alto & continuo

Main sources: BL Add 14214 100r 106v & Add MS 14210 81v - 88v

The lover deals with the loss of the beloved in this two recit and aria cantata. The first aria is very beautiful the second rather virtuosic for both singer and continuo cellist.
Range: c' - f''

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di contralto
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Porpora: Ò come à tempo qui t'incontro
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source: 2 copies in the British Library

This is not a cantata to win friends and influence people within the 'feminist movement'. The final (strangely written) aria uses the text: You are a woman, so I expect you to be inconstant and unfaithful, but I forgive you; I am a man and will fall in love with other women, just enjoy it!. It's either a very modern marriage or slightly insulting, you decide. In two recit and aria format, the arias both largo and without ritornelli.
Range: d - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Ò Pastori io v'avviso
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source BL MS Add 14225

A charming pastoral cantata with a text advising Shepherds to stay away from beautiful shepherdesses! The last aria has a written out upper part for the continuo, possibly to be played on a violin or flute.

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Occhi belli, occhi vaghi
Forces: soprano & continuo

Besotted! The lover compares his beloved's eyes to the stars under the influence of Cupid and his bow and arrows. "Joy and torment are gifts of the God of Love". In RARA format, the first aria a twisting larghetto the last a joyous allegro
Source: Münster Santini HS 3313(7)
Range: d - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Oh Dio, che non è vero
Forces: alto & continuo

Cantata Op. 1, no. 11
Metastasian text in which the lover bemoans the absence of the beloved.
A beautiful lento as the first aria, quite exquisite.
Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Oh se fosse il mio core
Forces: alto & continuo

Cantata Op. 1, no. 10
Text by Metastasio in which the lover pleads for the chance to prove his love.
A beautiful affettuoso aria and a mad allegro to finish.

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Ombre amiche, ombre care
Forces: soprano & continuo

With a text almost identical to the Marcello cantata Piante amiche, ombre care this is a vivid setting of a pastoral text. Protected by the friendly shadows the lover promises eternal fidelity. RARA format, the first aria allegro the second a lovely Siciliano

Source: Münster Santini 3313(8)
Range: d# - g#'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Or che una nube ingrata
Forces: alto & continuo

Cantata Op. 1, no. 8
Source: British Library copy of the 1735 edition.
Text by Metastasio, this time concerning a young man and what appears to be a wavering love for Clizia AND Irene!

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Ove mormora il rio
Forces: soprano & continuo

Using the simile of the suffering nightingale singing for his love, our valiant shepherd pines for Clori in this RARA format cantata. The first aria allegro paints a wonderful picture of the singing nightingale and the last, complicated aria shows the turmoil of the lover.
Source: Münster Santini Hs 3313 (Nr. 16)
Range: d - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Pastorelle che piangete
Forces: mezzo-soprano & continuo

Source: Source: BL Add 14,214 ff 64v - 70v (only source)
Remarkable piece in aria - recit - aria format, text (possibly by Metastasio) dealing with how much the lover is prepared to give up for his beloved Irene. The writing is sinuous and very chromatic.
Range: d' - f''

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Per temprare l'ardenti faville
Forces: soprano & continuo

The flame of love's ardour is mentioned many times in this cantata text! in ARA format starting with a chromatic largo and finishing with what can only be described as a fiery allegro Source: Münster Santini HS 3313 (9)
Range: e flat - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Povero fior di Clizia
Forces: alto & continuo

2 recit and aria format. Tells of 'Love's longing'. First aria (Largo) is particularly beautiful.

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Quando penso esser disciolto
Forces: soprano & continuo

Well aware of the influence of Cupid, our lover strives to protect himself and his beloved from the darts of the God of Love. In ARA format with a beautiful 'pathetic' aria to start.
Source: Münster Santini HS 3313 (12)
Range: e - g#'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Quanto s'inganna
Forces: alto & continuo

Is distance the cause or the cure of our lover's broken heart. He calls for medication, but what can help him? Clori is up to her old tricks again - you've got to feel sorry for her men, surely? RARA format with two charming arias.
Range: c - e'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Questa dunque è la selve
Forces: alto & continuo

Sources: BL Add 14214 and Add 14225
Aminta and Nice in a story of love denied and a woman spurned. 7 copies are known in both alto and soprano keys so it must have been a popular piece. An extensive work in recit - aria - recit - aria form.
Range: b - e'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Questo e il platano frondoso
Forces: soprano & continuo

From BL Add 14225
Aria - recit - aria structure with beautiful chromatic inflections and virtuosic last movement.
Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Scrivo in te l'amato nome (Il Nome)
Forces: soprano & continuo

Cantata Op. 1, no. 5
One of Metastasio's most famous cantata texts - the story of Clori and Filomena. Adagio - Recit - Allegretto
Range: e' - b flat''

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Se fedel cor mio tu sei
Forces: 2 sopranos, strings & continuo

The stunning duet which ends the first act of Porpora's Componimento drammatico to a libretto by Metastasio. Commencing with an involved secco recit and followed by da capo form duet with a middle section in a different meter and mood, it involves Venus and Adonis (La Romanina and Farinelli) singing of their love for each other.

Editor: James Sanderson

Duetto à due soprani da Gli orti Esperidi (1721)
£3.95
Porpora: Se la rosa fresca, e bella
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source: BL Add MS 14210 ff142v - 149r

A lovely cantata with a somewhat 'early' feeling to it. The recitative structure is as complicated as ever, but the arias are a little simpler than the later works. The story revolves around the attraction of bees to roses, in this case the rose is Irene and the bee is her erstwhile lover.
Range: e - f#'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Se vuoi sapir perchè
Forces: mezzo-soprano & continuo

One of three aria-recit-aria cantatas in BL MS Add 29484, simple but very attractive. As with all three the range is troublesome and would suit a lowish soprano or highish alto. Subject: 'If you want to know why I no longer have a heart in my breast, ask the God of Love'.

Editor: James Sanderson
Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Sente pur, che Maggio è nato
Forces: soprano & continuo

As May is born and Summer begins everyone except Tirsi is feeling the 'swelling of love'. The shepherdess in love with Tirsi is obviously not happy about this. The two arias encompass very different moods, the first, a happy allegro is bright and hopeful, the latter a slow, non da capo larghetto places the blame for unrequited love fairly on the shoulders of Amor.

Source: Münster Santini Hs 3313 (Nr. 18)
Range: d - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Sento una Tortorella
Forces: soprano & continuo

As a dove searching for its mate, the lover cries for his beloved in this beautiful example of the genre. In ARA format with some great bird calls.
Source: Münster Santini 3313 (5)
Range: e - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Siedi Amarilli mia
Forces: alto & continuo

2 recit and aria format, first aria accompagnato then secco. The story of Amarilli and Fileno and love's vicissitudes. First aria (largo) is very beautful. Source BL Add 14227 in hand of anonymous copyist. Catalogued in soprano key in Naples Conservatorio.

Editor: James Sanderson

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Porpora: Son tante e tante sono
Forces: soprano & continuo

She is the light of lights, the love of loves, oh could one find a more perfect woman? It's good old Clori again being praised to the heavens. In RARA format with a spiky largo and a thrilling allegro.

Source: Münster Santini 3313 (10)
Range: d - g#'

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Sorge la bella Aurora
Forces: soprano & continuo

The dawn rises and makes the fields golden and the flowers happy...the birds sing and all is right with the world! This is a lovel ARA format cantata from a copy in the Naples Conservatorio library. A beautiful Andante or Affettuoso begins it and the final aria is a fast and often virtuosic Allegro. The two arias separated by a typically complex Porpora recitative.

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Sotto l'ombra d'un faggio
Forces: soprano & continuo

Principal source BL MS Add 14229
extremely chromatic 2 recit and aria format (beneath the shade of a beech tree) Subject: Tirsi and Clori and the vicissitudes of love

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
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Porpora: Speranza del mio cor
Forces: alto & continuo

Source BL Add 14122
Hope of my heart..." Virtuosic cantata for alto and continuo in two recitatives and arias

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di contralto
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Porpora: Sù la cime d'un monte
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source: BL Add 14215 (only source)
Beautifully crafted cantata in a very good and detailed copy. Tirsi is 'dolente' and mesto' yet again, this time starting at the top of a mountain. Here he feels all the pain that love for Eurilla is causing. The first aria, Lento is a perfect evocation of this emotion.
Range: e flat' - g''

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
£4.95
Porpora: Sù la fiorita sponda
Forces: alto & continuo

Source: BL Add 14214 ff 107v - 114v (only source)
On the flowery banks of the bubbling brook sits the vague Colinette enjoying the theatre of flowers and herbs in a text possibly by Metastasio. She does a lot of sighing and causes drooping (!). Two recit and aria form with an extraordinary first aria full of 32nd notes and a fiery last aria.
Range: c' - d''
Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di contralto
£4.95
Porpora: T'intendo si mio cor
Forces: soprano & continuo

Source: BL Add MS 14210 ff 136v - 141r/Add MS 14157 ff 1v - 5v
A popular piece at the time, this cantata exists in MSS in libraries from the US to the UK and Italy. The text is based on Amor timido or Timid Cupid and may be by Metastasio. Aria (Adagio) - recit aria (Allegro) format, short but very sweet!
Range: f - g'

Editor: James Sanderson

Cantata à voce sola di soprano
£4.95
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